Surgical site infection remains the most common surgical complication. Up to 5% of patients undergoing operative procedures will develop a surgical site infection leading to a longer hospital stay and increased cost. One of the advances in infection control practices has been the selective use of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, indiscriminate antibiotic use has been associated with the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have acknowledged consequences for institutions as well as for individual patients. It is important for clinicians to understand when antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated and when it is inappropriate. The purpose of this document is to review the evidence for surgical site infection prevention and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for gynecologic procedures.